# CLP(FD) and CLP(ℤ): Prolog Integer Arithmetic

It is rather as if the professional community had been suddenly transported to another planet where familiar objects are seen in a different light and are joined by unfamiliar ones as well. (Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions)

## Introduction

To fully appreciate declarative integer arithmetic in Prolog, let us first consider arithmetic over natural numbers as a simpler special case.

The natural numbers are defined by the Peano axioms. In particular, 0 is a natural number, and for every natural number n, its successor S(n) is also a natural number. Thus, we could use the following Prolog program to define the set of natural numbers:
```natnum(0).
natnum(s(N)) :-
natnum(N).
```
In this representation, the natural number 0 is represented by the Prolog integer 0, and the successor of any natural number N is represented by the compound term s(N). For example, the integer 2 is represented as s(s(0)), since it is the successor of the successor of zero. This representation is variously called successor arithmetic, successor notation and also Peano arithmetic.

With this representation, we could use the following Prolog program to define addition, which is a relation between two natural numbers and their sum:
Exercise: Suppose I replace the goal nat_nat_sum(M, N, Sum) by nat_nat_sum(N, M, Sum). What are the advantages, and what are the drawbacks of this change, if any?
```nat_nat_sum(0, M, M).
nat_nat_sum(s(N), M, s(Sum)) :-
nat_nat_sum(M, N, Sum).
```
This is a pure predicate that terminates if any of the arguments is instantiated. We can read the clauses declaratively to reason about the cases that this relation describes. Other elementary relations between natural numbers can be defined analogously.

Unfortunately, this representation of natural numbers suffers from several significant disadvantages:
• First, this is not really the way we want to write and read numbers. We would like to use a more familiar notation—such as 1, 2 and 3—to represent natural numbers.
• With some practice, we may get used to the successor notation. However, a more fundamental problem remains: This representation takes space that is directly proportional to the magnitude of the numbers we need to represent. Thus, the space requirement grows exponentially with the length of any number's decimal representation. Therefore, reasoning about larger numbers is infeasible with this representation.
• More complex relations such as multiplication and exponentiation are hard to define in such a way that they work in all directions and retain good termination properties.
• To extend this representation to integers, we also need a way to represent negative numbers.
Therefore, successor notation—albeit useful to illustrate different ways in which we could represent our data—is not how we typically reason about numbers in Prolog.

Instead, we use built-in predicates to reason about numbers in Prolog. In the case of integers, these predicates are known as CLP(FD) constraints, and in more recent systems also as CLP(ℤ) constraints. CLP(FD) stands for Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains and reminds us of the fact that in reality, we can only represent a finite subset of integers on actual machines. ℤ denotes the integers and indicates that these constraints are designed for reasoning about all integers.

All widely used Prolog implementations provide CLP(FD) constraints. However, the exact details differ slightly between various systems. For example, in GNU Prolog, B-Prolog and other systems, CLP(FD) constraints are conveniently available right from the start. In contrast, you need to load a library to use them in SICStus Prolog and other systems.

If your Prolog systems provides these constraints as a library, adjust your initialization file so that this library is automatically available in all your programs. For example, in Scryer Prolog, you can put the following directive in your ~/.scryerrc initialization file:
`:- use_module(library(clpz)).`
It is highly advisable to make CLP(FD) or CLP(ℤ) constraints automatically available in all your programs, since almost all Prolog programs also reason about integers.

 Video:

## Constraints

Generally, an n-ary constraint is a relation between n variables. For example, (=)/2 and dif/2 fit this definition: These predicates are also constraints! In fact, every predicate you impose can be regarded as a constraint on the set of solutions.

In the following, we are considering CLP(FD) constraints. These are built-in predicates that enable reasoning over integers in a pure and declarative way.

The most important CLP(FD) constraints are the arithmetic constraints (#=)/2, (#<)/2, (#>)/2 and (#\=)/2:
 Constraint Meaning `A #= B` A is equal to B `A #< B` A is less than B `A #> B` A is greater than B `A #\= B` A is not equal to B
In this table, A and B are arithmetic expressions. Expressions are defined inductively:
• a variable is an expression
• an integer is an expression
• if X and Y are expressions, then X+Y, X-Y and X*Y are also expressions.
There are several more cases of arithmetic expressions, and also other categories of constraints, such as combinatorial constraints. See your Prolog system's manual for more information.

## Evaluating integer expressions

The most basic use of CLP(FD) constraints is evaluation of arithmetic expressions.

To evaluate integer expressions, we use the predicate (#=)/2 to denote equality of arithmetic expressions over integers.

Here are a few examples:
```?- X #= 5 + 3.
X = 8.

?- 2 #= X + 9.
X = -7.

?- 1 #= 1 + Y.
Y = 0.
```
Equality is one of the most important predicates when reasoning about integers. As these examples illustrate, (#=)/2 is a pure relation that can be used in all directions, also if components of its arguments are still variables.

## Example: Length of a list

For example, we can readily relate a list to its length as follows:
```list_length([], 0).
list_length([_|Ls], Length) :-
Length #= Length0 + 1,
list_length(Ls, Length0).
```
A declarative reading of this predicate makes clear what this relation means:
• The length of the empty list is 0.
• If Length0 is the length of Ls and Length is Length0 plus 1, then the length of [_|Ls] is Length.
Example query:
```?- list_length("abcd", Length).
Length = 4.
```
Importantly, this also works in more general cases. For example:
```?- list_length(Ls, Length).
Ls = [], Length = 0
;  Ls = [_A], Length = 1
;  Ls = [_A,_B], Length = 2
;  Ls = [_A,_B,_C], Length = 3
;  ... .
```
It can also be used in a different direction. For example:
```?- list_length(Ls, 3).
Ls = [_A,_B,_C]
;  ... .
```
Note though that this does not terminate:
```?- list_length(Ls, 3), false.
nontermination
```
It takes only a single additional goal to make this query terminate. This is left as an exercise.

To avoid the accumulation of constraints, we can introduce an explicit accumulator. By this, we mean a term that represents intermediate states that arise. For example, here is an alternative solution for relating a list to its length:
```list_length(Ls, L) :-
list_length_(Ls, 0, L).

list_length_([], L, L).
list_length_([_|Ls], L0, L) :-
L1 #= L0 + 1,
list_length_(Ls, L1, L).
```
Again, making the goal list_length(Ls, 3) terminate is left as an exercise.

## Domains

We can reason even more generally over integers. Consider a variable V that we want to use as a placeholder for an integer between 0 and 2. We express this on the toplevel using the constraint (in)/2:
```?- V in 0..2.
clpz:(V in 0..2).
```
If we place additional goals on the toplevel, the system automatically takes into account the admissible set of integers we specified for V, which we call its associated domain. In particular, the system prevents us from unifying V with integers that are not elements of its domain:
```?- V in 0..2, V #= 3.
false.
```
In contrast, the following query succeeds:
```?- V in 0..2, V #= 1.
V = 1.
```
Now two variables X and Y, both constrained to the interval 0..2:
```?- X in 0..2, Y in 0..2.
clpz:(X in 0..2), clpz:(Y in 0..2).
```
Or, equivalently:
```?- [X,Y] ins 0..2.
clpz:(X in 0..2), clpz:(Y in 0..2).
```
Thus, the predicate (ins)/2 lifts (in)/2 to lists of variables.

## Labeling

We can successively bind a variable to all integers of its associated domain via backtracking, using the enumeration predicate indomain/1:
```?- V in 0..2, indomain(V).
V = 0
;  V = 1
;  V = 2.
```
Assigning concrete values to constrained variables is called labeling. The predicate label/1 lifts indomain/1 to lists of variables:
```?- [X,Y] ins 0..1, label([X,Y]).
X = 0, Y = 0
;  X = 0, Y = 1
;  X = 1, Y = 0
;  X = 1, Y = 1.
```
If label/1 were not available, you could define it like this:
```label(Vs) :- maplist(indomain, Vs).
```
Labeling is a form of search that always terminates. This property is of extreme importance for termination analysis and allows us to cleanly separate the modeling part from the actual search.

In practice, the order in which variables are bound to concrete values of their domains matters. For this reason, the predicate labeling/2, which is a generalization of label/1, lets you specify different strategies when enumerating admissible values. A simple and often very effective heuristics is to always label that variable next whose domain contains the smallest number of elements. This strategy is called "first-fail", since these variables are often most likely to cause failure of the labeling process, and trying them early can prune huge portions of the search tree. It is available via labeling([ff], Vars).

For other problems, a static reordering of variables may suffice. With N-queens for example, it is worth trying to order the variables so that labeling starts from the board's center and gradually moves to the borders.

## Constraint propagation

From what we have seen above, it follows that we can combine different constraints by stating them as a conjunction. For instance, we can state that Z is the sum of X and Y, both of which are integers between 0 and 2:
```?- [X,Y] ins 0..2, Z #= X + Y.
clpz:(X+Y#=Z), clpz:(X in 0..2), clpz:(Y in 0..2), clpz:(Z in 0..4).
```
Note that the domain of Z is deduced from the posted constraints without being stated explicitly. Narrowing domains based on posted constraints is called (constraint) propagation, and it is performed automatically by the constraint solver. If we bind Z to 0, the system deduces that both X and Y are also 0:
```?- [X,Y] ins 0..2, Z #= X + Y, Z #= 0.
X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0.
```
In this case, propagation yields ground instances for all variables. In other cases, constraint propagation detects unsatisfiability of a set of constraints without any labeling:
```?- X in 0..1, X #> 2.
false.
```
In yet other cases, domain boundaries are adjusted:
```?- [X,Y] ins 0..2, Z #= X + Y, Z #= 1.
Z = 1, clpz:(X+Y#=1), clpz:(Y in 0..1), clpz:(X in 0..1).
```
A set of constraints and variables with associated domains is called (globally) consistent if all variables can be simultaneously bound to (at least) one value of their respective domains such that all constraints are satisfied. In general, all variables must be labeled to find out whether a set of constraints is consistent. However, there exist weaker forms of consistency that are guaranteed without labeling.

For example, the all_different/1 constraint does not detect unsatisfiability of the following:
```?- [X,Y,Z] ins 0..1, all_different([X,Y,Z]).
clpz:all_different([X,Y,Z]), clpz:(X in 0..1), clpz:(Y in 0..1), clpz:(Z in 0..1).
```
The all_distinct/1 constraint, in contrast, detects the inconsistency without labeling any variables:
```?- [X,Y,Z] ins 0..1, all_distinct([X,Y,Z]).
false.
```
To guarantee that stronger form of consistency, the all_distinct/1 constraint must do extra work for propagation. It therefore depends on the problem at hand whether it pays off to use it instead of all_different/1. If there are many solutions distributed throughout the whole search space, a naive search for solutions may easily find them, and additional pruning may only make this process slower. On the other hand, if solutions are relatively sparse, the additional pruning of all_distinct/1 can help to more effectively prune irrelevant parts of the search space. In practice, all_distinct/1 is typically fast enough and is preferable due to its much stronger propagation.

We can generalize this observation: There is a trade-off between strength and efficiency of constraint propagation. And further, when reasoning about integers, there are inherent limits to the strength of constraint propagation: It follows from Matiyasevich's theorem that constraint solving over integers is not decidable in general. This means that there is no computational method that always terminates and always correctly decides whether a set of integer equations has a solution. Therefore, in general, search—for example via labeling—must be used to find concrete solutions, or to detect that none exists.

## Legacy predicates

CLP(FD) constraints have been available only for a few decades. This means that they are still a comparatively recent development in Prolog systems. Most available textbooks have not yet had a chance to take such innovations into account. Many Prolog instructors have completed their formal education before constraints have become widely available. As a result, many Prolog programmers have never even heard of constraints.

Instead of arithmetic constraints like (#=)/2 and (#>)/2, you can also use lower-level arithmetic predicates like (is)/2 and (>)/2 to reason about integers. However, this comes with several hefty drawbacks. For example:
• (is)/2 and other low-level predicates are moded. This means that they can only be used in a few directions, making them unsuitable for more general relations. This severe limitation also prevents declarative debugging.
• (is)/2 and other low-level predicates intermingle reasoning about integers with reasoning about floating point numbers, and in some systems even about rational numbers. This means that when readers of your code see such predicates, they will wonder whether you are using them because floating point numbers may arise somewhere. In contrast, (#=)/2 and other CLP(FD) constraints make it perfectly clear that you intend to reason about integers. These constraints will help you to find certain classes of mistakes in your code more easily, because they throw type errors instead of failing silently.
• (is)/2 and other low-level predicates force beginners to understand the procedural execution of Prolog programs in addition to understanding the declarative semantics. This is too hard in almost all cases.
• (is)/2 itself is not sufficient: You also need (=:=)/2. In contrast, the CLP(FD) constraint (#=)/2 subsumes both (is)/2 and (=:=)/2 when reasoning over integers, making Prolog easier to teach.
For these reasons, I regard (is)/2, (>)/2 and other low-level predicates as legacy predicates. I expect them to gradually disappear from application code when the current generation of Prolog instructors is replaced, and more general techniques are taught instead.

By the way: (=<)/2 is not written as (<=)/2, because the latter would look too much like an arrow which is often used for theorem proving in Prolog.